Brown dwarfs

   Brown or brown dwarfs ( "subzvezdy" - subzvezdnye objects (with masses in the range 0,012-0,08 mass of the Sun, or from 13 to 75 ~ 80 Jupiter masses). Contrary to popular belief, they go thermonuclear reactions, but in contrast to main sequence stars, they can not compensate for the loss of energy in radiation, and relatively quickly slowed, eventually becoming planetopodobnye objects. In the brown dwarf, in contrast to main sequence stars, as there are no zones of radiant energy transfer - heat transfer in them is only due to convection, that leads to the homogeneity of their chemical composition in depth.

   1995: discovered the first brown dwarf. Teide 1, the object of spectral class M8 in the Pleiades cluster was identified by the CCD camera in the Spanish Observatory Roque de los Muchachos Astrophysical Institute in the Canary Islands.

   First discovered methane dwarf Gliese 229B, revolving around the red dwarf Gliese 229A (20 light years from the Sun). Detection was performed using an adaptive (self-) optics to improve the quality of images made with the help of a reflector in polutorametrovogo Palomarskoy Observatory in southern California. Follow-infrared spectroscopy made a 5-meter Hale Telescope, shows the abundance of methane dwarf.

   1998: The first discovered brown dwarf, emitting X-rays. Cha Halpha 1, the object of spectral class M8 in a dark cloud Chameleon I, classified as X-ray source, similar to the convection of late-type stars.

   December 15, 1999: first recorded outbreak of the brown dwarf in the X-ray range. The group of scientists, University of California, with the help of Chandra telescope observed the 2-hour flash object LP 944-20 (60 MJ, 16 light years from the Sun).

   July 27, 2000: recorded first rays of brown dwarf in the radio (discrete and continuous).

   Observations of the object LP 944-20 produced a group of students using the Very Large Array radio telescopes and their results were published in the British journal Nature.